Carrascal Y, Valenzuela H, Laguna G, Pareja P, Blanco M, Ortega C
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:
To understand the risk factors and long-term impact and results of aortic valve surgery in patients over age 80.
PATIENTS AND METHODS:
We consecutively evaluated 255 octogenarians who were operated on between 2000 and 2013 and referred for aortic valve disease (isolated or combined with coronary artery disease), which, even when associated with other diseases, was the primary cause of the patient’s functional limitation.
The mortality rate decreased from 14.08% (2000-2004) to 7.7% (isolated valve surgery, 4.4%; with coronary bypass, 3.3%) (2010-2013). The independent risk factors associated with mortality were urgent surgery, combined procedures, peripheral vascular disease, a postsurgery hematocrit level <24% and the need for transfusion. More than 50% of the patients experienced a postoperative complication. Blood product transfusions were associated with renal and respiratory failure, and preoperative anemia was associated with an increased rate of myocardial infarction and stroke. Survival at 1, 3, 5 and 10 years was 79.5, 74.3, 63.6 and 30.5%, respectively, with 91.5% of patients in NYHA functional class I-II. Long-term survival was lower for cases of preoperative left ventricular dysfunction. The EuroSCORE I logistics score was not useful for our population as a predictor of mortality or of medium to long-term survival.
The morbidity and mortality of aortic valve surgery for patients over age 80 has decreased in recent years, although it remains higher when valve surgery is combined with coronary surgery. The presence of preoperative left ventricular dysfunction decreases long-term survival.